The Doberman Pinscher (alternatively spelled Dobermann in many countries) or
Doberman is a breed of domestic dog. Doberman Pinschers are among the most
common of pet breeds. The breed is well known as a clever, attentive and
faithful companion dog.
Although once regularly used as guard dogs, watch dogs, or police dogs, this is less common today. In many countries, Doberman Pinschers are one of the most recognizable breeds, in part because of their actual roles in society, and in part because of media stereotyping.
Careful ancestry has improved the temperament of this breed, and the modern
Doberman Pinscher is an energetic and lively breed ideally suited for friendship
and family life. ///
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The Doberman Pinscher is a dog of medium size. Although the breed standards
vary among kennel and breed clubs, the shoulder height of a Doberman Pinscher
bitch is typically somewhere between 24 to 27 inches (61 to 68 cm), and the male
typically stands between 26 to 28 inches (66 to 72 cm).
The male generally weighs between 75 and 90 pounds and the bitch between 55 and
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Doberman Pinschers typically have a deep, broad chest, and a powerful,
compact, and square muscular body of medium size. However, in recent years some
breeders have primarily bred, shown, and sold a slimmer or more sleek-looking
Doberman Pinscher. This has become a popular body type among many owners,
especially those who show their Doberman Pinschers competitively. The
traditional body type is still more desirable to many casual owners and to those
who want the dog for protection. Furthermore, despite the "ideal" standards, it
is impossible to have complete control over the size and weight of dogs.
Generally speaking, show animals must fall within the ideal range of both size
and weight (for that country's breed standard), but it is not unusual to find
male Dobes weighing over 100 pounds or females that are also larger than called
for by the breed standards. Larger sizes might lead to additional health
problems, although those who are looking for a Doberman Pinscher to provide
personal protection or for use in police agencies or the military generally seek
out the larger examples and some breeders create specific breeding pairs in the
hope of getting a litter of larger dogs.
Most people know the most common black colour of a Doberman Pinscher. However,
two different color genes exist in the Doberman, one for black (B) and
one for color dilution (D), which provides for four different color
phenotypes: black, red, blue, and fawn (Isabella).
The traditional and most common color occurs when both the colour and dilution
genes have at least one dominant allele (BB, Bb, or bB and DD, Dd, or dD), and
is commonly referred to as black or black and rust (also called
black and tan). The most common color variation occurs when the black gene has
two recessive alleles (bb) but where the dilution gene has at least one dominant
allele (DD, Dd, or dD), which produces what is called a red or red and
rust Doberman Pinscher in America and a "brown" Doberman in the rest of the
world, which is a deep reddish-brown with rust markings.
A red Doberman Pinscher
The remaining two colours, "blue" and "fawn", are controlled by the color
dilution gene. In the case of the blue Doberman, the color gene has at least one
dominant allele (BB, Bb, or bB), but the dilution gene has both recessive
alleles (dd). The fawn (Isabella) is the least common color and occurs when both
the colour and dilution genes have two recessive alleles (bb and dd). Thus, the
blue color is a diluted black, and the fawn colour is a diluted red. Blue and
fawn Doberman Pinschers often suffer from a condition called Color Dilution
Alopecia, which can result in severe hair loss.
In 1976, a "white" Doberman Pinscher bitch was born,
and was subsequently bred to her son, who was also bred to his litter sisters.
This tight inbreeding continued for some time to allow the breeders to "fix" the
mutation, which has been widely marketed. Doberman Pinschers of this color
possess a genetic mutation, which prevents its pigment proteins from being
manufactured, regardless of the genotypes of either of the two colour genes; that
is, it is an albino. Though some potential Doberman Pinscher owners find the
color attractive, albino Doberman Pinschers, like albinos of other species, face
increased risk of cancer and other diseases and because of this and because of
abnormal development of the retina, should avoid sun exposure as much as
possible. The popularity of the "white" Doberman Pinscher has decreased
dramatically as these risks have become known, with many people have called for
an end to the breeding and marketing of the white Doberman Pinscher because they
perceive it as cruelty to the animal. Some countries have made the purposeful
breeding of the white Doberman illegal, but breeders who care and take note of
the ancestors can avoid breeding albinos as they are all descended from the
original female. A list of every descendent of the original albino-producing
dogs is available so that breeders can avoid producing this mutant dog.
The American Kennel Club registers albino Doberman Pinschers but disqualifies
them from conformation shows, and the Doberman Pinscher Club of America has
actively worked to discourage breeding to obtain albino Doberman Pinschers.
Although the Doberman Pinscher has most commonly been seen with a short tail,
it is actually born with a tail that is longer than many breeds'. The short tail
is the result of docking, a procedure in which the majority of the tail is
surgically removed within days of the dog's birth. Today, docking is illegal in
many countries, but not in North America. One argument for docking the
Doberman's tail is that it completes the sleek look that the dog is supposed to
have, since it was the way Louis Dobermann had originally envisioned the dog.
Few potential owners have a choice on the length of their Doberman Pinscher's
tail, as docking is normally done soon after the dog's birth. This means that
the breeder nearly always makes the decision before their dogs are even put on
Doberman Pinschers will often have their ears cropped, a procedure that is
functionally related to both the traditional guard duty and to effective sound
localization. Doberman Pinscher ear cropping is usually done between 7 and 9
weeks of age. Cropping done after 12 weeks has a low rate of success in getting
the ears to stand. Some Doberman Pinscher owners prefer not to have their pet's
ears cropped because the procedure is painful for the animal. The process
involves trimming off part of the animal's ears and propping them up with posts
and tape bandages, which allows the cartilage to develop into an upright
position as the puppy grows. The puppy will still have the ability to lay the
ears back or down. The process of posting the ears generally takes about a
month, but longer show crops can take several months.
After the initial surgery has been done, the ears are taped. Ear taping uses
posts to keep the ears straight in the upright position, allowing them to grow
and strengthen the cartilage. There are many variables involved such as crop
size, infection, healing, post choice, tape choice, time, etc.
The traditional Doberman has always been the one that has had both tail and
ears cropped. In some countries, docking and cropping are now illegal, but in
some breed shows Doberman Pinschers are allowed to compete with either cropped
or uncropped ears.
Doberman with natural ears.
The Doberman Pinscher has been used as a protection dog, due to its
intelligence, loyalty, and ability to physically challenge human aggressors.
Doberman Pinschers were once commonly used in police work and in the military.
The breed was used extensively by the U.S. Marines in World War II, and 25
Marine War Dogs died in the Battle of Guam in 1944: there is a memorial in Guam
in honour of these Doberman Pinschers.
In these roles, they inspire fear. They are often stereotyped in such roles in
movies (where they are trained to exhibit seemingly "aggressive"
video games, consequently many people are afraid of the breed. A related problem
is the misunderstanding of their legitimate roles; because guard dogs are
trained to neutralize unwelcome intruders, many people mistakenly believe that
Doberman Pinschers are vicious.
Doberman Pinschers are, in general, a gentle, loyal, loving, and highly
intelligent breed. Although there is variation in temperament, a typical pet
Doberman attacks only if it believes that it, its property, or its family are in
danger. According to the US Centres for Disease Control, the Doberman Pinscher
is less frequently involved in attacks on humans resulting in fatalities than
several other dog breeds such as pit bull-type dogs, German Shepherd Dogs,
Rottweiler's and Alaskan Malamutes.
Those familiar with the breed consider well-bred and properly socialized
Doberman Pinschers to be excellent pets and companions, suitable for families
with other dog breeds, excellent with young children, and even cats. The modern
Doberman Pinscher is well known as a loyal and devoted family member.
An average, healthy Doberman Pinscher is expected to live about 10 years.
Common health problems are dilated cardiomyopathy,
wobbler disease, von
Willebrand's disease (a bleeding disorder for which there is genetic testing).
Other problems that are less severe or seen less frequently include:
- Progressive retinal atrophy
- Copper toxicosis
- Colour dilution alopecia in blues and fawns (see follicular dysplasia).
- Hip dysplasia
- Peripheral neuropathy ("Dancing Doberman disease", very rare)
Doberman Pinschers were first bred in Germany around 1890 by Karl Friedrich
Louis Dobermann. After his death in 1894, the Germans named the breed Dobermann-pinscher
in his honour, but a half century later dropped the pinscher on the grounds that
this German word for terrier was no longer appropriate. The British did the same
thing a few years later. Dobermann was a tax collector who frequently traveled
through many bandit-infested areas, and needed a protection dog to guard him in
any situation that might arise. He set out to breed a new type of dog that, in
his opinion, would be the perfect combination of strength, loyalty,
intelligence, and ferocity. (He also worked with dogs as a second job, giving
him access to dogs for breeding.) Later, Otto Goeller and Philip Gruening
continued to develop the breed.
The breed is believed to have been created from several different breeds of
dogs that had the characteristics that Dobermann was looking for, including the
Pinscher, the Beauceron, the Rottweiler, the Thuringian Shepherd Dog, the black
Greyhound, the Great Dane, the Weimaraner, the German Shorthaired Pointer, the
Manchester Terrier and the German Shepherd Dog. The exact ratios of mixing, and
even the exact breeds that were used, remains uncertain to this day, although
many experts believe that the Doberman Pinscher is a combination of at least
four of these breeds. The single exception is the documented cross with the
Greyhound. It is also widely believed that the German Shepherd gene pool was the
single largest contributor to the Doberman breed.
Famous Doberman Pinschers
- Bingo von Ellendonk - first Dobermann to score 300 points (perfect score) in
- Graf Belling v. Grönland - first registered Dobermann
- Roscoe and DeSoto from Oliver & Company
- Zeus and Apollo, "The Lads" in Magnum, P.I.
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i have doberman puppy which is 2.5months old. As i am living
in india what type home made food i should give to my puppy.
I have a full-blooded doberman puppy that is almost 4 months
old and he is about 40 pounds! He is also about 19 or 20 inches tall at the
shoulder! So you may want to fix the little section about a doberman's size.
P.S. You should add the black and Tan Coonhoundto your list, they are great